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Citizens of Lithuania according to the Provisional Law on Lithuanian Citizenship of 09 January 1919

According to the Provisional Law on Lithuanian Citizenship of 09 January 1919, citizens of Lithuania shall be deemed to be: “1) persons, whose parents and grandparents have lived in Lithuania since ancient times and who themselves always live in Lithuania; 2) children of persons indicated in the first subsection, who even though did not always live in Lithuania, but returned to live thereto; 3) persons who have lived in Lithuania no less than ten years before 1914 and who had: a) either their own real property, b) or permanent job; 4) children of a citizen of Lithuania; 5) his wife or widow; 6) children of a not married citizen of Lithuania, if they have not been accepted by the alien as his children”.

Lithuanian Citizens according to the Soviet-Lithuanian Peace Treaty of 12 July 1920

The Soviet-Lithuanian Peace Treaty of 12 July 1920 also provided for which persons were recognized as Lithuanian citizens.

It has been established in part 1 and 2 of Article 6 of the Soviet-Lithuanian Peace Treaty that:

“Persons who lived on the territory of Lithuania during the day of ratification of this Treaty and who themselves or their parents permanently lived in Lithuania or were registered in the village, town or caste communities in the territory of Lithuania, as well as persons who had been living in Lithuania for at least the last ten years before 1914, having the permanent job there, leaving former civilians and military servicemen, not of the Lithuanian descent, together with their families shall be ipso facto recognized as citizens of the state of Lithuania.

Lithuanian citizenship in the Klaipėda Region

The Klaipėda Region was separated from Germany under Article 99 of the Treaty of Versailles of 28 June 1919. After the ratification of the Treaty of Versailles and its entry into force on 10 January 1920, execution of sovereign rights in the Klaipėda Region was transferred to the Triple Entente countries. On 16 February 1923,  the Conference of Ambassadors recognized Lithuania’s sovereignty over the Klaipėda Region. In this way the Klaipėda Region became a part of the territory of Lithuania. Its legal status in the state of Lithuania has not been formally recorded yet, because under the Resolution of the Conference of Ambassadors of 16 February 1923 this should have been established in the Klaipėda Region Convention, which had to be prepared by the Conference of Ambassadors together with the representatives of Lithuania.

Restoration of the Rights of Ownership to the Existing Real Property in Lithuania

Citizens of the Republic of Lithuania, whose real property was nationalised under the laws of the USSR (Lithuanian SSR), or which was otherwise unlawfully made public, can apply due to the restoration of rights of ownership to the existing real property, which is regulated by the Republic of Lithuania Law on the Restoration of the Rights of Ownership of Citizens to the Existing Real Property.

This law shall also regulate the procedure and conditions of the restoration, as well as the recognition of continuity of the restoration of the rights of ownership to the citizens of the Republic of Lithuania to the real property, restoration whereof has been initiated according to the Law of the Republic of Lithuania on the Procedure and Conditions of Restoration of the Rights of Ownership to the Existing Real Property, while evaluating the established objective public economic relations.

Benefits of citizenship of the Republic of Lithuania

The possession of citizenship of the Republic of Lithuania grants to a person certain rights, freedoms and guarantees, the aliens residing in Lithuania are not granted whereby, or are granted to a narrower extent. Therefore, it is a merit to be a citizen of the Republic of Lithuania for the following reasons:

- The possession of citizenship of the Republic of Lithuania shall be considered as the person’s permanent legal relationship with the State of Lithuania, which is based on mutual rights and obligatios. Citizens of the Republic of Lithuania shall have all rights, freedoms and responsibilities established by the Constitution, laws and other legal acts of the Republic of Lithuania, as well as international treaties to which the Republic of Lithuania is a party.

Lithuanian citizenship for persons who emigrated from Lithuania to South America (Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Venezuela or other country in South America), and for their descendants

The greatest emigration of Lithuanian residents to South America (Brasil, Argentina, Uruguay, Venezuela or other country in South America) occurred during the period of Independence of Lithuania. At this period, Lithuania experienced the second huge wave of emigration. The causes of this emigration were mostly economic, but in certain cases historical and political. During this period, emigration of Lithuanians to the United States of America decreased due to immigration quotas introduced in the United States of America. At that time, the majority of Lithuanians emigrated to Canada and South America (Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Venezuela or other country in South America), a part (mostly persons of Jewish nationality) emigrated to Palestine and South Africa. On the 3rd-4th decade of the 20th century, up to 60 per cent of all Lithuanian emigrants departed from Lithuania to South America.

Lithuanian citizenship for persons who emigrated from Lithuania to Australia, and for their descendants

The greatest emigration of Lithuanian residents to Australia occurred after World War II, during the third wave of emigration from Lithuania, together with emigration of political expatriates (Displaced Persons), who fled Lithuania at the end of World War II.

At the end of World War II, the emigration of Lithuanians to Australia was affected by historical and political circumstances, namely, World War II, consequences thereof, occupation of Lithuania. Lithuanians as political refugees receded to DP camps, wherefrom they were further transferred to regions of independent countries, including Canada. Most Lithuanians settled down in German DP camps, also, in Austrian DP camps, where political refugees were protected by international organizations UNRA and IRO, which took care of the relief, placement of war refugees and later on of their further emigration. All persons who moved from their countries were named by the term Displaced Persons. During this period, a huge part of Lithuanian emigrants departed to Australia.

Lithuanian citizenship for persons who emigrated from Lithuania to New Zealand, and for their descendants

The greatest emigration of Lithuanian residents to New Zealand occurred after the emigration of political refugees who fled Lithuania at the end of World War II, during the third wave of Lithuanian emigration from Lithuania, when the emigration of political refugees (Displaced Persons) who fled Lithuania at the end of World War II took place.

At the end of World War II, the emigration of Lithuanians to New Zealand was influenced by the following historical and political circumstances: World War II, consequences thereof, occupation of Lithuania. Lithuanians as political refugees receded to DP camps, wherefrom they were further transferred to regions of independent countries, including Canada. Most Lithuanians settled down in German DP camps, also, in Austrian DP camps, where political refugees were protected by international organizations UNRA and IRO, which took care of the relief, placement of war refugees and later on of their further emigration. All persons who moved from their countries were named by the term Displaced Persons. During this period, a huge part of Lithuanian emigrants departed to Australia.

The certificate confirming the right to reinstate the citizenship of the Republic of Lithuania and its issuance procedure

Each person, who held the citizenship of the Republic of Lithuania before 15June 1940, and his/her descendants, who have not acquired the citizenship of the Republic of Lithuania, have the right to reinstate the citizenship of the Republic of Lithuania. This right is not limited in time, moreover, a person may reinstate citizenship regardless of what country he/she lives in. That right is supported with certificates confirming the right to reinstate the citizenship of the Republic of Lithuania issued by the Migration Department from 1 January 2013. These certificates replace the previously issued certificates confirming retention of the right to the citizenship of the Republic of Lithuania.

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